Comments/Notes on Adjudication Structure:
The Commission, under Subpart E (18 CFR pt. 385, subpt. E), may refer a variety of proceedings (in whole or in part) for hearing by Administrative Law Judges. Resulting initial decisions issued by ALJs may be reviewed by the Commission -- sitting as an appellate body -- when either (a) any participant files timely "exceptions" to an initial decision under Rule 711 (18 CFR 385.711) or (b) the Commission takes "own motion" review of the initial decision under Rule 712 (18 CFR 385.712) when no timely "exceptions" to an initial decision have been filed by issuance of an order staying the effectiveness of such decision pending Commission review.